12: FROM REPRESSIVE MUTUAL ASSISTANCE AGREEMENT TO COMMON ORGANIZATION OF THE POLICE
The process of internationalization of the political strategy, methods, and practices of counter-revolutionary class war has been occurring at the level of the European states for some years.
It is futile to identify some of the main phases in this process, because they have been carried out very discretely, which is not to say “secretly”, the objectives they have accomplished, have not yet been recognized by the Revolutionary movement in their strategic scope. Chronological exposition seems to us to be the most useful in providing a shared awareness of the problem. (Note 1).
The process of concentration and centralization of the power of the imperialist bourgeois within supernational-transnational institutions far from resolving the problem of the resumption of accumulation on the level of the system, aggravates all its internal contradictions and even encourages the development of the class war. However, what it highlights, is that in the new situation constituted by the class enemy, revolutionary action and the counter-revolutionary response find themselves in a asymmetrical relation and one which is not immediately deducible from the simple power relations (relations of force) which seemingly can be found within a single national State, and that for the metropolitan proletariat the contradiction class-State immediately assumes the character of an anti-imperialist contradiction, which does not necessarily mean it is between the class and the supernational apparatuses but a contradiction between the class and the national determinations of imperialist power, which is to say, between the class and the imperialist State.
In summary: even against localized revolutionary tensions, there is always an intervention (and this is possible precisely because of the new structures of power) of the totality of the forces, intelligence and technology of the imperialist apparatuses. The “EEC plan for the repression of terrorism”, “common organization of the police” are not simply bureaucratic acts of various governments and ministries, but new facts which should not be underestimated because they change the terms of the war.
Strasbourg: Meeting of the Ministers of Justice of the 18 countries participating in the Council of Europe in order to coordinate the fight against international terrorism. An agreement is reached on the common fight against terrorism with a extension and reinforcement of the responsibilities of Interpol.
Summer of 1975
Milan: A bilateral meeting is held between Italian and FRG counter-terrorist personnel.
A proposal for the internationalization of the fight against terrorism is made by the government of the FRG. In a interview interior minister Genscher states that: “I intend to put this question on the agenda of the upcoming Summer ministerial meeting of the EEC.”. The German government will also address the problem at the UN;
Ministers representing nine EEC countries sign a political understanding for the suppression of terrorism. The countries initiating this meeting are the FRG, the UK and Italy. In this understanding it is stated that: “The member states of the EEC, consider as unacceptable the use of the inhumane method of hostage taking to put pressure on governments, whatever the political purpose maybe. It is in the interests of all governments to oppose this method and it is in the interests of all governments to cooperate in the fight against the scourge of terrorism. Recent events, have once again demonstrated that no country, no people, no government can hope to escape acts of terrorism, hostage taking and hijacking carried out on its own territory and directed against its own citizens and its own interests, unless all countries agree on effective control measures. To this end the member states of the EEC, declare they are determined to cooperate with other countries for the purpose of eliminating and deterring the escalation of terrorism. They are committed to bringing before the courts and extraditing those responsible for taking hostages quickly and without bureaucratic red tape. To this end they consider it appropriate to elaborate a “international agreement” through the Ministers of Justice of the EEC. The heads of state are aware of the decisions which have already been made by the interior ministers of the EEC in this area: and urge these ministers to continue.”
Brussels: the foreign ministers of the EEC, heads of various police forces and diverse “experts” on the repression of terrorism from different countries decide to create a common police organization. At the end of this meeting which was requested by Italy following the “attack in Genoa by a terrorist commando which killed Public Prosecutor Coco and his bodyguards”, a six point communique is disseminated. The ministers decide:
1) to foster the exchange of information as a means of further developing effective methods for preventing and handling this form of criminality;
2) to commit to mutual assistance in concrete cases of terrorism;
3) to proceed with the exchange of information on the application of technology, and work experience with technology and equipment of the police forces in various countries;
4) to provide the opportunity for police personnel of any country to participate in anti-terrorist courses in other States, or to make educational visits;
5) to cooperate in all areas related to internal security, including air transport, security of nuclear facilities and civil protection measures in case of nuclear disaster;
6) to form a special work group, comprised of senior officials of different ministries in order to examine the specific issues raised by this form of international collaboration.
Strasbourg. the European Agreement for the suppression of terrorism is approved.
London. Nine EEC interior ministers meet, along with a commission comprised of police officials and heads of counter-guerrilla units and “experts” on counter-revolutionary class war. Italy is the center of concern because of the development of the revolutionary struggle there in recent years. The decision to develop a common police organization made in June 1976 is confirmed. In special operational decisions are made concerning the following points:
1) the formation of a continental training center for counter-guerrilla units in England, to be specifically handled by the British counter-guerrilla units.
2) the creation of a European computer database which: centralizes all information on the guerrilla groups: their militants and their methods; centralizing all data related to hostage takings, bank note serial numbers etc.
3) approval for police to extend anti-guerrilla manhunts on a continental level without restriction by borders.
4) agreement for the exchange of counter-guerrilla personnel and technology;
5) control of the arms trade through the unification of technical, police and judicial measures on a continental scale.
Periodic meetings of police chiefs are assigned the responsibility of working to implement the provisions of the agreement and also have the task of preparing the next meeting of the nine ministers.
The selection of England as the center for joint counter-guerrilla action is made on the base of the experience that the military personnel of that country have gained in the struggle against the IRA, a struggle which synthesizes all aspects of the guerrilla in the metropole.
Immediately after the London summit, interior minister Cossiga goes to Madrid for a meeting with his Spanish counterpart Martin Villa. In this meeting an explicit proposal is made for the inclusion of Spain in the continental policies of counter-revolutionary repression on behalf of the nine participants in the London summit. The integration of Spain as a “weak link” of the imperialist chain is indeed an objective of the prime decision makers. This objective is however very ambitious and far from risk free, because while the transformation of “fascist Spain” into the “imperialist State” is a important transition in the process of imperialist continental integration, on the other hand, the strength of the Spanish guerrilla can break in through the continental process and become an asset to the revolutionary process.
Cossiga goes to London for a meeting with Home Secretary Merlyn Rees, agreements are made on the purchase of repressive technology and the perfection of the agreement made at the June summit. Subsequently Rees will visit Rome.
During the Schlayer operation and the hijacking by the Martyr Halimah Commando, and also following the massacre on the 18th of October, the politico-military personnel of the European imperialist states grouped around their German “superiors” give us a crude and demystified picture of their line of march and the operational level currently attained by their process of integration. Insofar as the guerrilla is generally acknowledged as the main and common enemy then the “struggle against terrorism for the defense of western society” more and more becomes the strategic terrain upon which the imperialist restructuring of the States advances which forms the basis of so-called “European unity”.
As Schmidt has stated: “the liberation of the hostages is a success in the international solidarity against terrorism”. And in fact, all the power of political pressure of the US and UK is placed in the camp of support for the decision to intervene made by the German government. This “political solidarity” is accompanied by a no less substantial “active assistance” on the military-police level and the manipulation and control of public opinion.
Cossiga travels to Bonn for a meeting with German interior minister Maihofer. Following the meeting a statement is issued in which it is said that: “the two ministers have expressed a common appreciation for the close and trusting collaboration which has been accomplished so far between the police and security services of the two countries in particular in the area of the struggle against international terrorism and have made agreements for operational cooperation in specific cases.”