Guido Carli, President of Confindustria 1976-80.

Guido Carli, President of Confindustria 1976-80.


Parallel to the restructuring of the politico-military apparatus in the strategy of the big multinational groups is the restructuring of the economic apparatus which has as its primary objective the restarting of the mechanisms of capital accumulation which have now fallen into deep crisis, increase in profit, the establishment of new forms of exploitation and control in relation to the working class, and new forms of domination over the people of the developing countries, placing social imperialism in a position of inferiority and weakness.

To accomplish this, the multinationals are currently forced into a desperate attempt to develop their own means of production and their own productive base in two main ways: the first is to develop their own systems of production and production itself on a more advanced technical base (so those which are capital intensive); this addition allowing them to reduce production costs and increase profits, establishing new forms of control over the working class, tending to deepen multinational capitalism, precisely because, in the industrial metropolises, the forces of production are constantly compressed.

Essentially, burgeoning joblessness, which is primarily the consequence of the economic crisis, now becomes a structural and progressive norm, because the economic crisis continually worsens, contributing to the closure of entire enterprises, and because technological modernization, and the reorganization of the production chain inside the factory, does not lead to the development of new employment, but to the intensification of exploitation and to the constant and progressive elimination of workers.

It is for exactly this reason, that the contradiction between the metropolitan proletariat and the imperialist bourgeois, tends to continually mature and intensify the conditions for the development of civil war.

The second which is a consequence of the first, is that of the export of the most backward technology and production (which is mostly labor intensive), to developing countries where it is cheaper, because here the multinationals can still find low cost labor power; it is a means of increasing the profit of the multinationals and represents the fundamental instrument for the penetration and construction of imperialist domination over the people of the third world, carrying with it, its contradictory aspects, because it comes into conflict with the people’s liberation struggles, which continually reduce the space within which the multinationals can peacefully exercise their rule in various countries, therefore increasing the spread of the contradictions, which afflict the imperialist bourgeois with a mortal crisis.

Even in our country, economic restructuring occurs within the rigid division of areas of production and of the market, implemented at a international level from the imperialist centers, under the direction and control of the super-national organs (in specific the IMF and the EEC).

It advances around four main directives!

-development and priority restructuring of new industries, driving the most advanced technology, namely, in accordance with the sectoral plans of the EEC, and on the base of determinations made in the “industrial reconversion law” which are: nuclear in energy; specialty steel in metallurgy; information technology in electronics, and also chemicals, shipbuilding and fibers.

-in all the other sectors, an overall technological adjustment, especially through the development of more capital intensive manufacturing processes: this is done through the massive installation of systems of production, with super-automated machinery, with the use of robots, with the enormous utilization of electronics (numerical control machines, computer centers) and programing and automatic control of entire production processes which previously required scores of workers.

-development of military industry, in which, in strategic terms, production will always increase (which is not to say it will create new employment), because as we have already noted, imperialism on the one hand is currently preparing the third world war, and on the other it is already engaged in dealing with the class confrontation which continually intensifies and extends into the metropole. Because of all this, manufacturing for military production has secure growth prospects, both as regards heavy production (aircraft, warships, etc), and production with a counter-guerrilla function: from weapons to the multiplicity of sophisticated electronic equipment (computer centers for data storage; new communication systems for the CC and PS, photocellular control systems, closed circuit television etc), to jeeps and armored vehicles.

-reconversion of all small and medium industry for the purposes of the multinationals and outright aggregation of most factories, in order to form large industrial conglomerates out of entire production sectors. Examples are many: at Fiat, once it began restructuring, and selection of factories and workshops which produce for them; furthermore the machine tool holding company for Fiat (CO.MA.U.) is established centralizing under a single leadership the best small and medium factories which produce in this sector.

Along these lines of restructuring the major multinational groups, (whether foreign or domestic based), tend to overcome their own political contradictions, and to agree on a division of the profit from various sectors of production. It goes without saying that the struggles to control the largest shares of the productive sectors will never end, but at least in this stage, they are secondary contradictions unified within a single strategic project: the imperialist one.

Therefore it makes no sense to speak of the fundamental contradiction as that between private and public industry (PP SS), like in the babbling of the PCI and the unions around their demagogic economic strategy. This was very clearly illustrated in the division of the nuclear “cake”, the agreement reached between Fiat and Finmeccanica which established the nuclear “peace”.

Actually this confrontation arises today, between multinationals which have the same economic and political interests, since for both the privately owned factories and the one with State Participation, the objectives of restructuring, are both tactically and strategically identical.

Unemployment, the frenzied mobility of the unskilled labor force, the increase of productivity and therefore of exploitation and the militarization of the factory are the logical consequences of this criminal project which has taken a heavy toll on the working class.

The structures which in our country have the task of leading and managing the project of restructuring of the economic apparatus, are those of the executive, via the CIPI (Inter-Ministerial Committee for Industrial Policy) and Confindustria [national employer’s federation].

Present on the CIPI are the economic ministries ( Industry, PP SS, Treasury, Finance, Southern Development Fund) and the president of the Bank of Italy. These organisms continue to be among the basic tendencies of the imperialist restructuring of the state, namely that of the maximum unification of the executive centers of power; this tendency aims to avoid contradictions, insofar as they are secondary, which often occur between the various ministries, therefore giving consistency to the executive, allowing it to more forcefully fulfill its function of service to the multinationals. The CIPI, therefore has the task of leading and applying on a national level, the line of economic restructuring, decided by the super-national organs of domination, now synthesizing at a superior level, the decision making powers divided between the different government ministries.

Confindustria like the executive is a direct articulation of the imperialist organs but with a different function: while the executive implements the line of economic restructuring decided in the imperialist centers, Confindustria becomes the defacto center of the bosses initiative, elaborating the policy line of imperialist restructuring in the different sectors of the economy, and then making proposals to the government and the trade unions. Therefore it is the technical think tank and political guarantor in the service of the multinationals.

In order to adapt to the new needs produced by the development of imperialism, Confindustria has began a period of profound restructuring, both political and organizational, whose fundamental task is the constitution of an internal political unity around the line of the multinational bourgeois, this objective, beginning in 1970 with the famous Pirelli report, was sanctioned in 1974 with the presidency of Agnelli and finds continuity in the current president, Carli. Only a few months after the inauguration of the latter, he promptly proposed the merger of Confindustria with Intersind (which represents PP SS) and with Confapi (which represents some of small business) precisely because “there do not exist the really fundamental political contradictions which would justify such a division” among the bosses; a first step in this direction has already been accomplished: Confindustria and Intersind sat down at the same table with the unions to discuss the problem of the holiday weeks abolished in the January 1977 agreement.

In this way Confindustria has moved beyond its old role of “union of the private bosses”, in order to become a structure which articulating the guidelines of the economic policy of the multinationals, is able to unify within itself, the divisions between big and small bosses and between public and private industry, in economic planning, on a national level and throughout all sectors. It is, in fact the structure which has the task of making proposals and programs for all the main problems of economic and political restructuring. The other basic function of Confindustria within the imperialist state of the multinationals is that of building a leadership cadre adequate for the management of the restructuring of the productive process. With respect to this, Confindustria is carrying out an intense development of cadre training at all levels, utilizing appropriate schools and training courses, and in parallel to this, is in the process of activation of old and new facilities and study centers; the objective is the homogenization of all leading personnel around the policy line of the multinationals, the transformation of all the bosses and leaders of industry into managers who adopt the values of efficiency and entrepreneurialism, providing them with the political and technical means, to prepare to them to effectively manage the economic restructuring of the Imperialist State of the Multinationals.

If the DC is the backbone of the total imperialist initiative in our country, Confindustria is the backbone of the imperialist initiative to restructure the economic apparatus.